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Users may place a crushed or powdered dose of MDMA in a small piece of soft paper eg, toilet paper and swallow it—so-called parachuting—to speed onset of the drug's effect. Sessa B. Neurosci Lett. J Intensive Care Med. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. MDMA ecstasy and the rave: a review. Parachuting: a dangerous trend in recreational psychoactive substance delivery. Expert Opin Drug Deliv.
J Psychopharmacol. Am J Ther. Cunningham M. Ecstasy-induced rhabdomyolysis and its role in the development of acute renal failure. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. Acute renal failure after ecstasy. Low-dose MDMA "ecstasy" induces vasopressin secretion. Holden R, Jackson MA. Near-fatal hyponatraemic coma due to vasopressin over-secretion after "ecstasy" 3,4-MDMA. Mechanisms underlying the hepatotoxic effects of ecstasy. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. Memory disturbances in "Ecstasy" users are correlated with an altered brain serotonin neurotransmission.
Psychopharmacology Berl. National Institute on Drug Abuse. National Survey of Drug Use and Health. Accessed: February 13, Underreporting of ecstasy use among high school seniors in the US. Drug Alcohol Depend. Clin Toxicol Phila. Evidence for ificant polydrug use among ecstasy-using college students. J Am Coll Health. European Drug Report Trends and Developments,. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union; Executive Summary: Conclusions and Policy Implications.
World Drug Report Book 1. United Nations publication, Sales No. Elevation of ambient room temperature has differential effects on MDMA-induced 5-HT and dopamine release in striatum and nucleus accumbens of rats. Methylene 3, 4 dioxymethamphetamine-induced acute myocardial infarction.
Ann Emerg Med. Dantrolene in the treatment of MDMA-related hyperpyrexia: a systematic review. Accessed: May 30, Congenital anomalies after prenatal ecstasy exposure. Ecstasy: a common cause of severe acute hepatotoxicity. J Hepatol. Agony and ecstasy: a review of MDMA effects and toxicity. Eur Psychiatry. The origin of MDMA ecstasy revisited: the true story reconstructed from the original documents.
Prenatal 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ecstasy exposure induces long-term alterations in the dopaminergic and serotonergic functions in the rat. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. Joseph M. Ecstasy - Its History and Lore.
Carlton Books; Hyponatraemia and catatonic stupor after taking "ecstasy". The role of 5-HT in the impairment of thermoregulation observed in rats administered MDMA 'ecstasy' when housed at high ambient temperature. Amoroso T. J Psychoactive Drugs. The authors and editors of Medscape Reference gratefully acknowledge the contributions of author David Yew, MD, to the original writing and development of this article.
For You. Decision Point. Log In. Up It's Free! Register Log In. No . If you log out, you will be required to username and password the next time you visit. Log out Cancel. Share Print Feedback Close. MDMA is available as a tablet, capsule, powder, and liquid; however, it most commonly is used in capsule or tablet form.
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